Critical Editions Produced by Students at Rider University
ENG 347- 20th Century British Literature
May 5, 2016
“Marsden and Gawthorpe were both active in the Britain’s most militant suffrage organization, the WSPU. At this time, the organization was a constant presence of daily press because of it’s sensational acts of both public spectacle and resistance, such as dramatic and eye-catching street pageants, interruption of political meetings, as well as a variety of acts that had these suffragettes in and out of prison” (Green). As a result, a combination of Gawthorpe’s ill-health and her disapproval of Marsden’s attitude towards the WSPU, made her reluctant on taking a bigger role with The Freewoman, so in March 1912, she left she paper. Unlike Gawthorpe, Marsden stuck with the magazine even after it changed from The Freewoman to The New Freewoman to The Egoist. Over the years, Marsden continued with women’s issues through the newly changed magazines but added more ideas that would appeal to a larger audience, including men as well as women. The Freewoman being a feminist magazine had to work harder to bring new ideas to the table that would attract the attention of men, therefore, Marsden incorporated a male perspective this being Ezra Pound.
The Freewoman discusses prevalent topics on women’s issues, which were very intriguing during the time of the issue (vol. 1 no. 3), and consequently are still discussion topics today. Some of these topics were housework, motherhood, women’s waged work, marriage, women and education, and the suffrage movement. These topics discussed were hot topics to talk about during the time of The Freewoman, which were controversial for both men and women due to women earning freedom and men not having as much power over women than they were used to. Although The Freewoman (vol. 1 no. 3) pinpointed a variety of different topics, these specific ones that were mentioned above are the specific topics we deemed most relevant to the theme of feminism, which most intrigued us throughout the semester. Feminism interests us not just because we are young women, but also since today’s society has come a long way from where it was during the publication of this magazine. Having chosen this particular issue (vol.1 no.3), we took an interest in seeing the transformation of when The Freewoman took place to form what society has become today and where women stand in the particular topics that were discussed. As young women today, we see the difference in benefits and opportunities we have that they did not have just because they were women. The bravery of the women in the suffragette movement intrigued us and made us not only respect the passion they had for women’s rights but also had us questioning our own bravery wondering if we would be able to go through the fight to prove a point to men.
The Women’s Social and Political Union created a historical movement that helped women all around the world gain independence and equality that changed lives forever. Without the movement, women would still be considered lower and gender role expectations would still be in full force. Something as simple as being paid less in the workplace just because women are seen as the weaker sex could still be in effect, but why, when the task is the same for both?
As it relates to comparing today’s society to the time of the published magazine, we are certainly able to see a difference in how times have changed. The topic of stay-at-home mothers has become more open to the idea of fathers assisting with domestic work, and mothers becoming the main providers for the family instead of the father. Men staying at home have become more of a common idea and men are more open to the idea knowing that the spouse would be a better fit in the role of the provider, due to finances. Those who fought during this period towards the women’s suffrage movement would look back and proudly be able to say that they made a difference for the women of today who have come a long way to have equality between themselves and men. We will both be using the topics that intrigued us, but will go in different directions within the same topics. Even though we are discussing the same topics, we looked deeper into each topic and chose different ways of discussing the themes. We both have some different articles that the other did not use, and we talked about the topic in different formats. Although we did discuss some of the same topics from our specific volume, we did take a different approach with it. In Jamie’s analytical essay she took the approach to relate all four of her topics back to the WSPU and why the movement helped all of the different topics while Jackie took a different route and connected the four topics together. Within our individual analytical essays, we hope to shed light on what we deem to be the most important theme within this volume. By taking different approaches our expectations are for readers to understand the concepts of these topics in different ways and to have a better understanding of the selected issues through different point of views.
The Freewoman That Weren’t So Free
The Freewoman magazine took place during the movement and fight for equality between men and women. The issue was founded in 1911, and was edited by Dora Marsden who was indeed a feminist. The Freewoman was known as a feminist magazine, but then later on transformed into a magazine for both men and women readers. The particular issue of The Freewoman being discussed (vol. 1 no. 3) covers significant topics in relation to feminism and the fight for equality between men and women. This issue discusses the movement for equality including the fight for the freedom to vote, shared childcare responsibilities within the home, education for women, and self-sacrifice. The Freewoman demonstrates the brutality that women went through and the fight that was put up for equality. The issue deliberates on the conditions in which women were treated and how women went about their everyday lives. In comparison to women in today’s generation, a reader can view the differences in the treatment and rights of women based on the social movements and social changes that occurred during the early 1900s and today. This issue of The Freewoman shows that equality was not given, but was fought for and was a continuous fight due to gender role expectations and authoritarianism.
The Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU), also known at the suffragettes had been active for eleven years before the militancy campaign ended in 1914. “During this time, it gave the world a new version of what it was to be a woman: strident, combative and willing to put up a physical fight to achieve political goals” (Adams 1). Women were finally starting to be looked at as “somewhat” equal, rather than below all men. The Women’s Social and Political Union was created in 1903, but there was no stone thrown until 1908, and then in 1910 and 1911 there was a truce made. Women were fed up, and ready to fight for what they believed in which was equality. Women all around the world had to push their limits and fight like men to prove a point. “It encompassed unladylike and deliberately uncultured behavior, such as spitting at policemen and slashing painting in galleries” (Adams 2). Women in the United States were awarded a special medal from the Women’s Social and Political Union for bravery in the course of several arrests and prison hunger strikes. Women were driven to earn equality, which means that absolutely nobody could get in their way without a fight. In The Freewoman, it is stated that women did not care what others thought, but refused to give up on what they believed, even though all women feared what the outcome would be.
“My friend’s fear is prompted by the view that enemies are bad things in one’s life. Without on the present occasion expressing an opinion one way or the other on a very important aspect of life, let me comfort my anxious friend by the declaration that so far as I am concerned I flatly refuse to accept any “enemies” on conventional melodramatic lines. For every insult, they offer I will make them a gift, and for every blow they deliver, I will do them a kindness if I get a chance. So I warn them in advance!” (Gawthorpe 41).
Women fought for what they wanted and were not afraid to do whatever they had to do, even if it meant picketing, fighting, and jail time for equality between men and women. The Freewoman article allowed readers to know the tragic events that happened and showed readers that women truly fought for their equality and the right to vote, and were not just given the privilege. If it were not for the Women’s Social and Political Union, women would not have the right to vote like they do today.
Self-sacrifice is when an individual gives up on one’s own interests or wishes to help others or to help a particular cause. The Freewoman exclaims the self-sacrifice that women had to put upon themselves in order for the movement of the Women’s Social and Political Union to successfully occur. “The quite modern attitude, then, being hopeful, it should be understood by women that self-sacrifice, strictly interpreted, is not a gentle yielding thing, allowing one’s nature to slip along the lines of least resistance; nor is it in the highest sense possible except to a strong and energetic soul” (Hindshaw 46). The Freewoman describes self-sacrifice as only being done by the strongest and most spirited people. Only the best can self-sacrifice because it is not easy and it takes good souled people. Women during the Women’s Social and Political Union self-sacrificed on a daily basis, standing up for themselves and fighting against the law just in hopes that they will win the fight and gain the right to vote. The Freewoman relates to self-sacrifice through the Women’s Social and Political Union. The women fighting for their rights, fought and caused damage because they morally thought that fighting and vandalism was the correct way to get their point across, even if it meant that the consequence was not ideal and could lead to jail time or set backs on the movement. All women during the movement showed self-sacrifice in some way by standing up for themselves no matter the consequence, even though the consequence was usually known by all women they still stood up for what they believed was right. There is converging evidence that people are actually rather selfish in moral dilemmas. “An individual will place greater value on their own lives, rather than the lives on others such as strangers” (Sachdeva 2). The Freewoman expresses that women did not care what they had to do to others to gain the right to vote and equality; therefore if something needed to be done to other individuals to make a point, women were willing to do anything.
The Freewoman portrays that if women did not stick up for what they believed, and self-sacrificed the way they did the current generation would be completely different and just like times before the Women’s Social and Political Union formed to earn equal rights (Johnson 44). The Freewoman also discusses stay-at-home fathers, which was completely uncommon during the time of when The Freewoman was written. In order for the roles to be reversed and stay-at-home fathers to be acceptable, women had to be looked at differently by the public in a way of not being looked at just as stay-at-home mothers, but more equal to men which only happened through the Women’s Social and Political Union. “Men have been expected to be the financial provider of their families; this gender role is associated with being dominant and assertive. In contrast, women are expected to be the caregiver of children, a gender role associated with being nurturing and affectionate” (Fischer and Anderson 16). During the time of The Freewoman, gender role expectations were the norm; women stayed home and did the dirty work while men were looked at as higher because they earned the money for their family. Today, this is not the case, women can be the provider and men can be the home keepers. Before the Women’s Social and Political Union, people looked down at stay-at-home mothers because many felt that they did not “work” or do anything such as labor. Individuals felt that the characteristics of a stay-at-home mother were to cook, clean, and look after the children because many felt that women were incapable of doing anything else. “Home does not signify a place where cooking and sewing is carried on; otherwise it differs not from a restaurant or a milliner’s shop” (Johnson 45). Individuals looked at the home as a place of labor for women to work, which was considered all housework and childcare.
The workplace and home have observed significant changes in the last few decades. Women now make up about 47% of the labor force and most married heterosexual couples are dual-career couples with about 38% of women earning as much or more than their husbands (Fischer and Anderson 16). Many men in today’s generation want to share childcare equally with their female partners, which is not the typical norm. Usually, one parent is considered the primary caregiver to children. Men are providing more childcare today than in previous decades, which was always very uncommon. “Kindly, working men, indeed, are known, to rise early and make and bring up a cup of tea for the “missis” in bed, recognizing that she too does her day’s work; but such men are exceptions, and are held pearls of their sex” (Johnson 46). Men were always looked at with pride because they were the main providers, but nowadays many roles of men and women have upturned due to financial issues within families. During the time of when The Freewoman was written, men being stay-at-home fathers would be looked at as disgraceful and not masculine, when that is not the case in today’s generation. It is much more acceptable for women to be the financial providers and for men to be stay-at-home fathers. Most of the fathers who are the primary caretaker for their children choose to be stay-at-home fathers, whereas others may be “forced” into the position due to unemployment. Due to the current economic recession, men are becoming unemployed, which can land men to fulfill the position of the primary caretaker. Reversed roles between men staying at home and women working would have never been acceptable if women were only labeled as stay-at-home mothers and were never given the opportunity to prove themselves in the workforce. Nowadays men and women have equal opportunity to be financially successful. Therefore, whoever is more successful financially is known as the provider for the family, while the other takes care of the children when this was never the case before because women never earned nearly as much as men. During the time of when The Freewoman was written, nobody would have ever assumed that stay-at-home fathers would be a job that men take on instead of being in the workforce and switching roles with their partners.
Women have come a long way since The Freewoman was written, considering men have always been looked at as dominate compared to women, which also pertained to education and who was privileged to it. “Even though men were granted education, he must also grant his womenfolk educational advantages in which the woman returns to the home where she is incontinently veiled and shut up and sent back to continue the housework” (Mohamed 48). In some places around the world, men were completely dominate and had all control over women, and did not want their wives to be educated because if a man’s wife was too educated, she did not need her husband (Mohamed 49). All around the world, men were considered greater than women even when it came to education because many felt that women did not need to learn because their duty was to be a stay-at-home mother which did not require an education. Education was a complete privilege for women and was not given frequently to many. Only the upper class would usually get an education, when the lower class did not have the chance of receiving an education. Today, men and women are guaranteed an education, which was unheard of in many different countries where men were a lot more dominate than women. “Two goals are distinguished as gender parity goals [achieving equal participation of girls and boys in all forms of education based on their proportion in the relevant age-groups in the population] and gender equality goals [ensuring educational equality between boys and girls]” (Subrahmanian 2). Times have changed and women have the opportunity to be as equal to men as possible. Education is still a privilege but all are given it, which helps create equality and equal opportunity between men and women. Being given an education creates open opportunities between men and women in the workforce and helps all to understand that men and women are no different.
The Freewoman allows readers to understand the difficulty that women had on a daily basis in order to obtain equality and to be treated with respect. This magazine demonstrates some topics such as the movement for equality including the fight for the freedom to vote, self-sacrifice, shared childcare responsibilities within the home, and education for women. This issue (vol. 1 no. 3) portrayed the struggles of women on a daily basis, and the movement, which led freedom of women to become realistic. Without the Women’s Social and Political Union, women would not be where they are today and could possibly still be looked at as lesser than males. Gender role expectations are slowly becoming extinct and women are now authoritarians all around the world.
A Snapshot of Women’s Struggle for Equality
Since the start of the publication The Freewoman in 1911, the magazine’s goal was to give a voice to women during this time. The magazine offered a wide-range approach on gender issues, introducing readers to popular concerns that sparked conversation among both men and women. Editors Dora Marsden and Mary Gawthorpe intended for the magazine to “ponder on the profounder aspects of Feminism” (Green, 1). Volume 1, number 3 of The Freewoman specifically takes a closer look at topics dealing with the treatment of women. This specific volume advocates for women by formulating ideas that can be implemented and the hopeful results that will benefit women if they do. These issues include women’s responsibility at home and treatment in the workplace, as well as organizations fighting for women like the Women’s Social and Political Union that demanded self-sacrifice to gain equal rights. All four of these topics represent important struggles women experienced during this time, which should be brought to light, for they have paved the way for women to have the opportunities we do in today’s society. Through the years, women encountered hardships during their fight for equality, but they never let that bring them down and instead it compelled them to work harder to be heard.
During the time around 1911 men were seen as the breadwinners of the households, and even if women wanted to take on this role, more times than not they were unable to or the money they did earn did not equal that of men. According to Fanny Johnson in The Freewoman, “A wage-earning wife is already an asset to a working man. Let him realize that she needs at the same time to be set free at home, and he will welcome her to every occupation, while he helps to organize the most sweated trade of all—domesticity” (Johnson, 4). We’re able to see this idea of a proposal made that if men were just willing to come to the realization that women with jobs are already an asset to their husband, why not give them the opportunity and set women free from her domestic responsibilities at times. As it relates to The Freewoman, in Jessica Fisher and Veanne Anderson’s essay, “Gender Role Attitudes and Characteristics of Stay-at-Home and Employed Fathers” explains how the workplace has drastically changed over time, specifically from the 1970s to the present day in the U.S. The authors go on to say how now in the workplace women make up almost half the labor force, leaving the men to help provide the childcare. This idea of men being the primary caretaker in some situations is presented as it says, ““most fathers who engage in paternal care, which Pleck defined as the father being the primary caretaker during the “employed mothers’ hours of work”, are employed full time” (Fischer/Anderson, 16). It discusses how in today’s society men’s thinking hasn’t completely changed; some men view the stay-at-home father position as temporary, while others in fact do view it as long-term. Relating Johnson and Fischer’s essay back to The Freewomen section, Johnson and Fischer found out why men stay in the home. The top two reasons fathers wanted to take on the role to help along with the partner were a sense of shared responsibility and better income on the wife’s behalf. This relates back to Johnson’s point in The Freewomen that a wage-earning wife is an asset to a workingman, if he just opens his eyes and realizes and gives her the opportunity to be set free from domestic responsibilities it will be worth it. By being able to see that Johnson’s arguments in The Freewoman have been proven true in Johnson and Fischer’s essay, it’s clear that women have come a long way not only sharing domestic responsibilities, but also being given the opportunity to even be treated better in terms of earning higher incomes than men in the workplace in some circumstances, for that isn’t always how it was.
In The Freewoman it’s clear that during this time men and women weren’t necessarily seen as equals. Women didn’t want men to pity them, but just wanted to gain the same respect they had by their superiors in the workplace. J.J Mallon’s entry on “A Strike” in The Freewoman, addresses that these factory companies felt as though some work was unskilled so why worry about these women when there were others out there that would be more than happy with the wages they would earn, so companies would reduce wages not caring about the unfit lifestyle it was causing these women. As I read further it surprised me that these woman knew and spoke up about other jobs paying higher paying wages, but didn’t actually act on it by leaving. Not only were the wages low, but also for other companies such as the tin-box trade, conditions were dangerous from working with heavy machinery. Mallon discussed the positions women held and the injuries they suffered, “These girls are rollers, flangers, and the rest, and they handle heavy machines, which very often roll out more than the material. Many of their poor hands, which should be beautiful, are squashed and marred” (Mallon, 50). Even with the injuries, these companies didn’t care about the well-being of these workers, but instead the focus was on the employees speed to complete the work. In an essay I obtained by Timothy Borden “Maybe I Should Forget the Union and the Factory: Gender and the Fight for Allegiance in UAW Local 12, Toledo”, it discusses the reasons why they hired women both during World War II, but as well as prior. Specifically the Swartzbaugh Manufacturing Company employed women as one-third of its workforce since they loss employable men to the draft. “…wartime employers like Swartzbaugh sought out women workers for a less patriotic reason: they could pay them less than their peacetime, male counterparts” (Borden, 139). After some time women got fed up with this treatment and decided to take action, “…the company rejected a grievance committee report that showed “the company refused to live up to its obligation in paying the women welder the same rate as that paid to other employees doing similar work.” Refusing to wait for union officials to take the grievance to the next stage, all employees walked out in support of the women who were denied equal wages. The walkout achieved its purpose, as later wage figures show a generally comparable set of wage rates for welders across the gender line” (Borden, 140). During this time women strived to make a way to be seen as equals and it’s because of these courageous women, their determination and standing up for themselves that women have much greater opportunities in the workplace today.
While we saw amazing examples of women and their peers fighting to bring about change in inequality in family and the workplace, this was also a time that feminist groups were forming to have an even greater impact. One such organization was the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU). The WSPU a militant organization campaigning specifically for women’s suffrage, formed in 1903 lasting until about 1917. One militant action that was supported by one of the founders Emmeline Pankhurst and its supporters was the use of arson and explosives. In Jad Adams “We Will Fight for You”, written current day looking back to explain the uncivilized actions women took to stand up for themselves during the 20th century, “It encompassed unladylike and deliberately uncultured behavior, such as spitting at policemen and slashing paintings in galleries. Such behavior challenged the Victorian notion of the moral superiority of women, even as the suffragettes themselves promoted this view of women as one clear reason why they should have a vote” (43). Although these women took actions that were seen as “unladylike”, they came out victorious because those around them knew that these violent actions would not come to an end until their voices were heard. Women may have been looked at differently, but they brought a new look on what it means to be strong, forceful, and persuasive.
In The Freewoman Winifred Hindshaw, explains self-sacrifice as, “…what is sacrificed is the lower to the higher self, the narrower, more immediate interest to the wider and more remote…” this being “…losing oneself to find oneself…”(Hindshaw, 46). This idea of “…losing oneself to find oneself…” does relate to women during this time, but we also see elements of self-sacrifice coming from Vanessa Carbonell’s essay “Sacrifices Of Self” which are connected to these women also. In Carbonell’s essay she supports and breaks down Connie Rosati’s argument that, “the key to understanding self-sacrifice is, so to speak, to put the self back into the sacrifice” (Carbonell, 55). Rosati’s argument explains the idea that in order to self-sacrifice one must morally think first about the consequences. This can relate back to The Freewoman not just in Hindshaw’s essay of self-sacrifice, but also in Mary Gawthorpe’s discussion the WSPU. Those women participating in these protests had to first consider the consequences of their actions like being imprisoned. They sacrificed themselves knowing these consequences. As they sacrificed their self that accepted women’s position in society to create a new equal self.
It is certainly clear that in the 19th and 20th centuries women are seen as inferior to men and as a result, not given the same rights, opportunities and pay as their male counterparts. According to the Institute For Women’s Policy Research, “women are the equal, if not main, breadwinner in four out of ten families. They receive more college and graduate degrees than men. Yet, on average, women continue to earn considerably less than men. In 2015, female full-time workers made only 79 cents for every dollar earned by men, a gender wage gap of 21 percent” (Hegewisch/DuMonthier, 5). As if this pay wage gap were not insulting enough, we see these same working women take on more responsibilities at home than their spouses at the end of the workday. This phenomenon referred to as The Second Shift book, by sociologist Arlie Hochschild speaks to women performing the bulk of the household chores even though the couples both work outside of the home. There are still actions that need to be taken to improve women’s equality, but we have certainly made big strides from where we once were.
41:The Freewoman– When The Freewoman was created along with it came a new category of modern female identity. The magazine itself took a wide range approach to issues such as gender by exposing readers to a variety of modern types such as housewives, working women, bound women, etc.
46: Moral obligations– This is simply, “Those aspects of the self that are involved in moral choice, moral behavior, moral judgment, and the feeling or expressing of associated reactive attitudes.”(Carbonell 62)
42: Mr. Lloyd George– “Still another correspondent asks however I could be taken in by that “lying little hypocrite,” Mr. Lloyd George. Her argument is that if I would only look at his wretched man as he really is, and examine his record, I could not trust him” (Gawthorpe 42). During the Women’s Social and Political Union women could not trust nearly any men because many fought against the movement. Most men believed that women were not as worthy as them. “The plain truth is that I do not share such a view about Mr. Lloyd George or any other “opponent” of the cause of Votes for Women” (Gawthorpe 42). Opponent meaning men, who women did not trust during this time. Women kept to themselves and did what they had to do in order for the movement to progress.
46: Self-sacrifice– Also known as “sacrifice of self” is subsets to all sacrifices, which involve “change in or damage to the self.” Sonya Sachdeva actually argues, “The key to understanding self-sacrifice is, so to speak, to put the self back into the sacrifice.” The act of self-sacrifice is said that it’s an act that must “involve a sacrifice of one’s interests that is at the same time a sacrifice of self.” (Sachdeva 46)
45: Mother as Gatekeeper– This is said to be of “the mother’s attitudes toward female and male parenting roles and her own investment in childcare may serve to limit or expand the father’s participation in childcare”(Fischer and Anderson 18). For example, these working women will be more likely to encourage their husbands to participate in the childcare aspect and stay home with the kids, as oppose to a woman who is more traditional in the child rearing beliefs.
45:Fathering– “Men are providing more of the childcare today than in past decades” (Fischer and Anderson 16). Many fathers want to share equal parenting with their female partners and be known as the couple that practices egalitarian sharing of children, or the “dual-carer couple,” is not the current norm. Most paternal caretaker fathers choose to be a stay-at-home father, whereas others may be “forced” into the position because of unemployment due to the current economic recession (Fischer and Anderson 16).
45:Gender Role Attitudes– “Gender roles refer to behaviors or occupations in which a particular gender is expected to engage”(Fischer and Anderson 17). Men and women have certain gender roles that have expectations of what each gender should do and should not do. For example, men have been expected to be the providers for the family, while women are associated with being the house workers and being the caregiver for children. This female gender stereotype is associated with being affectionate unlike how men are “supposed” to be.
41:Suffragette– Kitty Marion, music hall artist and suffragette started feeling anger when she saw the horrible treatment towards women. Kitty was expected to trade sex in return for a leading role and allow patrons of the music halls to assault her in cabs without complaint. This led Kitty to become a bomber, an arsonist, and a public campaigner for the suffragette movement. Being treated so poorly created strong minded women who would finally fight for what the deserved, which was to be treated equal (Fern 18).
46:Moral Concepts– “Centuries’ worth of cultural stories suggest that self-sacrifice may be a cornerstone of our moral concepts” (Sachdeva 1). For instance, there is a trolley rolling down the hill and the only way to save five people from the trolley is to push a single man on the tracks. It is also stated that the bystander cannot sacrifice himself or herself because their weight is insufficient enough to stop the trolley. But, if this were not the case, would people rather sacrifice him or herself then push another person? Studies were run and the first study shows that people would approve of self-sacrifice than harming another person to get the same outcome.
45: Man at Home– “Those chivalrous men, too, who recognize the burden that is laid upon women will see more clearly perhaps than women themselves how avoidable is much domestic labor, and will work towards the evolution of the New Housekeeping” (Johnson 45). Even some men throughout this time realized that women were treated very poorly, and recognized that women deserved not to just stay at home, but to obtain a job outside of the home. Men did not necessarily want to switch roles, but wanted women to have the opportunity outside of the home.
50: Heroine– A woman who is admired or even idealized for showing noble qualities or outstanding achievements, is seen as a woman of courage.
45: Working Women– “A Wage-earning wife is already an asset to a working man. Let him realize that she needs at the same time to be set free at home, and he will welcome her to every occupation while he helps to organize the most sweated trade of all-domesticity” (Johnson 45). Having women working outside of the home allows financial responsibility to not be as stressed by men to provide for the family on his own. Working women allows more income for the family, which means less responsibility for men and this allows men to not be dominant in the home. Men think they have all dominance in the home because they earn all of the money to support the family, but if women start to work and also bring in an income, the authority of the household is equal between the man and the woman.
41: Women’s Social and Political Union– Militant organization campaign fighting for women’s suffrage. Women fought for equality and the freedom to vote.
47: Women and Education– Education was not given, but was a privilege for women. The lower class did not have as many opportunities to receive an education in comparison to the upper class. In some Middle Eastern countries, women were less likely to receive an education due to men being the dominant gender. Men had complete control over women, and most men did not want their spouses to receive an education, leaving women to feel in need of their men.
50: Striking– Women made the decision to refuse to work until they felt their needs were fairly met, dealing mostly with wage and the labor that was put in for the amount they were receiving. This was a type of protest, which was organized by multiple women employees.
Surveillance photographs set issued by the police to public galleries, identifying dangerous militant suffragettes.
Police survey Saunderton Railway Station after a suffragette arson attack, March 9th, 1913.
Women working in shirtwaist factories went on strike due to low wages and horrible working conditions.
The cigar industry was one place where men and women worked side by side and still were given unequal pay; therefore, women went on strike to fight for equal pay between both men and women.
A woman giving her husband the duty of domestic work while she refuses to stay at home and continue to be the domestic partner in the family.
Adams, Jad. “We Will Fight For You!.” History Today 64.9 (2014): 43-47. Academic
Search Premier. Web. 22 Mar. 2016.
Borden, Timothy G. “Maybe I Should Forget The Union And The Factory: Gender And
The Fight For Allegiance In UAW Local 12, Toledo.” Labor History 41.2 (2000):
133-151. America: History & Life. Web 2 May 2016.
Carbonell, Vanessa. “Sacrifices Of Self.”Journal Of Ethics 19.1 (2015): 53-72. Academic
Search Premier. Web. 22 Mar. 2016.)
Fischer, Jessica, and Veanne N. Anderson. “Gender Role Attitudes And Characteristics
Of Stay-At-Home And Employed Fathers.” Psychology Of Men & Masculinity 13.1 (2012): 16-31. PsycARTICLES. Web. 22 Mar. 2016.)
Gawthorpe, Mary. “To The Women’s Social and Political Union.” Ed. Dora Marsden and
Mary Gawthorpe. Freewoman 7 Dec. 1911: 41-60. Web.
Green, Barbara. “Introduction to The Freewoman.” Modernist Journals Project. 2012. Web. 6
Hegewisch, Ariane and DuMonthier, Asha. “The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2015
and by Race and Ethnicity.” Institute for Women’s Policy Research. Web. 15 Apr. 2016.
Hindshaw, Winifred. “Self-Sacrifice.” Ed. Dora Marsden and Mary Gawthorpe.
Freewoman 7 Dec. 1911: 41-60. Web.
Johnson, Fanny. “ Man at Home.” Ed. Dora Marsden and Mary Gawthorpe. Freewoman
7 Dec. 1911: 41-60. Web.
Mallon, J.J. “A Strike.” Ed. Dora Marsden and Mary Gawthorpe. Freewoman 7 Dec.
: 41-60. Web.
Mohamed, Duse. “Women, Education and Islam.” Ed. Dora Marsden and Mary
Gawthorpe. Freewoman 7 Dec. 1911: 41-60. Web.
Reeves, Amber. “The Reward of Virtue.” Ed. Dora Marsden and Mary Gawthorpe.
Freewoman 7 Dec. 1911: 41-60. Web.
Riddell, Fern. “The Weaker Sex?.” History Today 65.3 (2015): 18. MAS Ultra – School
Edition. Web. 22 Mar. 2016.)
Sachdeva, Sonya. “The Role of Self-Sacrifice in Moral Dilemmas.” EBSCOHOST, 15
June 2015. Web. 24 Mar. 2016)
Subrahmanian, Swamy. “Importance of Education for Women Stressed during
Committee Meeting on Burkina Faso Reports.” M2 Presswire: 1. Jan 28, 2000. ProQuest. Web. 24 Mar. 2016.