Modernist Journals

Critical Editions Produced by Students at Rider University

Blast Vol. 2 July 1915

Brittany Johnson and Jessica Fox

ENG 347

Introduction

Possibly the best-known thing that the Vorticists produced is their journal BLAST, in June 1914 just before the beginning of the First World War. Edited by Wyndham Lewis, its radical intention was immediately evident when it first appeared. It has an astonishingly bright pink color with the title BLAST written across the cover in huge, bold, black letters. Ezra Pound described it as this “great MAGENTA cover’d opusculus”. The first section of the journal starts with a sequence of about twenty pages, which are presented like a manifesto. Each page has a dramatic piece of graphic design, in which the editors ‘Blast’ and ‘Bless’ different things, often these are the same things. It is sarcastic and entertaining to read, but has a more malicious tone underneath the sarcasm. Vorticism was a radical British art movement that attacked traditional British culture. It was formed and shaped, at least in part, in response to other art movements.

The main contributors to are Blast, Wyndham Lewis, the editor, and Ezra Pound, the writer. Wyndham Lewis started off with following the art movement, Cubism, which is known for its abstract forms and impressionism. But he began to develop his own style that ended up being Vorticism. Ezra Pound began in the movement of Imagism which is precise imagery, clear, and sharp in poetry and art. By the time he worked with Lewis, he had evolved as a writer. He became more militant and vulgar, and ended up following Wyndham Lewis’s lead into Vorticism. They both impacted Vorticism and became main leaders with the movement. The Vorticist journal BLAST was published only twice; BLAST: The Review of the Great English Vortex appeared in July 1914 and BLAST: War Number in July 1915. The first issue was where the Vorticist manifesto was posted, as well as a long list of things to BLAST (the mild, domesticated and provincial) or BLESS (distinctly unromantic ships, English ports, bridges and hairdressers).

The first edition of Blast consisted of a bright pink cover and bold typographic innovations to catch the reader’s attention.  This edition also had the “Vorticist” manifesto and several featured artists and writers. This edition focused on defining Vorticism and the followers. A few of the contributors to this edition include Frederick Etchells, Henri Gaudier-Brzeska, and Edward Wadsworth. This edition, unlike the second, is well-known for its abstract use of typographic lettering.

The manifesto and BLAST and BLESS lists include deliberate contradictions and rhetorical oppositions; many of the things blasted are also blessed. Vorticists claimed to be mercenaries who would start out with opposite statements and launch their attack on both sides; they mixed extreme opposites. Such contradictions not only support images of an unadulterated rebellious attitude, but it also distanced them from Futurist, nationalistic attitudes.

Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914 a month after the first edition of BLAST was issued. The second and final issue announced the death of Henri Gaudier-Brzeska, one of the original Vorticists, who was killed at war in the trenches. Real war exceeded the shock and violence of the Vorticists’ rhetorical war and the movement quickly faded. The second edition of Blast magazine, published in July of 1915, is called “The War Number”. This magazine had a drawing by Wyndham Lewis on the cover instead of the bright pink cover. The typescript was also in a simpler form instead of the bolded letters that varied in size. This magazine was edited by Wyndham Lewis, and a few of the contributors are Ezra Pound, Henri Gaudier-Brzeska, and T.S. Eliot. This magazine’s focus on war is shown through Wyndham Lewis’s “Notes on War”, his editorial, and “Artists and the War”. Henri Gaudier-Brzeska contributed with his “Vortex (written from the trenches)” which was written right before he was killed in action. Illustrations within the magazine still stay true to the Vorticist movement although they are war related. The art still draws the readers into their vortex and with its defined industrial style. The political stance of this magazine is somewhat incoherent, it goes from them being against the Germans, to them being against the war entirely, then to them blessing war heroes. Throughout the magazine Lewis seems to stagger in his position on the war. The focus of this magazine is art and war, as the war notes contain his thoughts towards the war along with his “Art Notes” which contains several pieces on art and how Vorticism fits into various movements of European Avant-Garde.

Although this movement and magazine did not last very long, it still had a major impact on modernism. This movement was about going against the grain and doing things that had never been done before. Lewis and Pound demonstrated original and thought provoking content that will forever remain a part of modernist history.

Critical Essays

Art and War in the Second Edition of Blast

By: Brittany Johnson

Blast is known for “blasting” and “blessing” people, places, and things in its manifestos. This manifesto in the second edition of the magazine consisted of war heroes, artists, memorials, and places. In the second issue, Blast magazine’s “Blast and Bless” represents the relationship between art and war through the people, places, and things that are either commendable or detestable according to the main contributors of Blast, Wyndham Lewis and Ezra Pound. This relationship shows that for Lewis and Pound art is war and war is art.

This manifesto was written by Wyndham Lewis and Ezra Pound, two big contributors of Blast. It is like the manifesto in the first edition, but the biggest difference between the manifestos is that the second edition includes primarily war related people, places, and things even though some people named in the first manifesto are named in the second manifesto too. This manifesto is more war-related because it was composed at a time when Wyndham Lewis was on active duty. Wyndham Lewis was a war artist during World War I, and also second lieutenant in the Royal Artillery. He had supported the war until he went to the front when he became extremely against it. Ezra Pound was also deeply affected by the war because his good friend and contributor to Blast, Henri Gaudier-Brzeska, was killed in action. This took a toll on him and he was also extremely against the war. Lewis and Pound came together to create this manifesto, and their view on war is shown through it.

Although the manifesto showed Lewis’s and Pound’s attitude towards the war, art was the first to be “blasted” and the list included artists who are considered to be traditionalists, two of whom were members of the Royal Academy. To begin, Frank Brangwyn, who is blasted in both editions, is an Edwardian painter, then there is fellow member of the Royal Academy, Sir William Orpen, a portrait and genre painter. Orpen is a widely imitated traditionalist. He was also an official British war artist, and an advocate of the war, unlike Wyndham Lewis. This is one reason Orpen was blasted. Orpen’s art, according to The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, is “imaginative, generalizing vision that naturally lays stress on aspects differing from those selected by a more literal realism.” His art very natural, which differentiates it from realism. He completely goes against the theme of Vorticism which is focused on industrial art. Also, Orpen and Brangwyn are both members of the Royal Academy, which was greatly opposed by Ezra Pound who believed the Royal Academy followed Grecian art. Pound considered Greeks to be an “unpleasant set of people who ever existed…” (67). Ezra Pound was very vocal when it came to expressing his opinion and he criticizes the art of the Royal Academy. Pound proves the idea of art is war as he voices his opinion so candidly against the Royal Academy and Orpen in Blast. This is not the only artist that Pound references, he also mentions Ivan Meštrović, a Yugoslavian sculptor. Meštrović’s sculptures were strongly influenced by the Byzantine and archaic Greek sculptures. Meštrović was mentioned in Ezra Pound’s Gaudier-Brzeska: A Memoir, where he calls Meštrović and a few other painters “…the glorification of energetic stupidity… the art of stupid, by the stupid” (124). He goes on an entire tangent about how only educated men are considered artists, which stems back to the Royal Academy. Pound is cultivating this idea that there is a war between the artists, it is Blast against the Royal Academy.

In opposition to these Royal Academy artists, Lewis and Pound blessed three very distinct Japanese artists for their originality which they saw the Royal Academy as missing as they based most of their art off of Greco-Roman art. The blessed artists included Koyetzu (Koyetsu), Rotatzu (Sotatsu), and Korin. Koyetzu is known for creating a new movement within Japanese art with his work in lacquerer and calligraphy and he rarely painted but when he did he created very “intense pieces in pictorial design” (Binyon 215).  In Laurence Binyon’s Painting in the Far East, he talks about how Koyetzu “created a new mode of lacquer-work by the employment of lead, tin, and shells in decoration” (215). This shows that for Lewis and Pound, this is a significant movement that Koyetzu created and his followers took his movement to another level. Pound and Lewis created this war between these innovators and the Royal Academy. Korin and Rotatzu followed, but they created their own sense of originality within Koyetzu’s movement. There is a war happening within the art world, and the art is the war because these artists want to create the best art possible. Lewis and Pound both show the war between the Royal Academy and Koyetzu’s Japanese art movement. This relates back to the main purpose of the second edition of Blast, and that is the war happening within the art world and World War I happening at the time.

Alongside this aesthetic war, this manifesto is full of military people and places, from war heroes to the scaffolding surrounding the Albert Memorial. World War I is a major influence in the second edition of Blast and although Lewis was not for the war, he did bless a few war heroes including Adolphe Eugène Jean Henri Max and Reginald A.J. Warneford. Max led a strong resistance against the Germans at the beginning of the war because the Germans wanted to pass through Brussels, but Belgium was trying to stay neutral. Max ended up being held captive for not cooperating with the Germans. Warneford destroyed an enemy Zepplin in air battle. Both of these men are like art, unique in their own way creating their own picturesque resistance that is seen in so many war paintings. Although Bombardier Wells was not a war hero, he was a champion heavyweight boxer, who went to war not agreeing with its tactics and longevity, just like Lewis. This shows the idea of art within the war, as much as they do not agree with it they still feel the need to participate and protect their homes. The most interesting thing and place to be blessed is the scaffolding around the Albert Memorial. The scaffolding was created to protect the memorial from German bombs. In Lewis and Pound’s minds the scaffolding was created to hide the memorial because they thought it was hideous (Wees 226). The art is in the war and yet Lewis would rather that piece of art be bombed or hiding so that it does not have to be in his sight.

Lewis also blesses war babies but blasts birth control. The fear of illegitimate births was very relevant during the war and many people thought there was a major increase in the illegitimate birth-rate. This fear was influenced by “hero-worship” among young women and the thought that they were promised marriage when they return home so they could receive relations from women before they left. The persona took over the actual moral values of the men and women. War babies are blessed because it contradicts the scientific liberalism of birth-control. Birth-control was not accepted in those times due to Christian beliefs and it is believed to promote sex instead of condemning it. The picture that is painted is that a woman marries a soldier and sends him off to war, and he comes home. The blasting of birth control was because it related too closely to scientific liberalism for Lewis and Pound. A piece of art that is tainted by the reality of the war.

Even tea shops relate to back to the war and it is seen with the blasting of Lyons’ Tea shops and the blessing of the ABC Tea shops. In William Wees’s Vorticism and the Avant-Garde he notes that Lyons’ Tea shops are blasted for sending bad meat for the troops stationed at the White City. Wees goes on to say the only reason ABC Tea shops are blessed is to balance out the blasted tea shop, but really this manifesto creates another reason these two tea shops are at war. In Scott McCracken’s Masculinities, modernist fiction and the urban public sphere, he discusses the “Tea shop dreams” which are the Lyons’ Teashops and the ABC Tea shops. Both of these tea shops are two of the biggest chains in England and are considered “standard reference points in literature for early-twentieth-century writers because of their bohemian traits that became “offices” for writers and artists. According to McCracken, both tea shops became industrial concerns because they manufactured their own food and sent it out to their tea shops. Lyon’s Tea shops became more popular as it was absorbed by other companies. The war lies between these two chains and this manifesto shows that ABC Tea shops now have one thing on Lyons’ Tea shops, the political art of war.

This manifesto, created by Pound and Lewis, was to portray their thoughts on art and war, shown through the people, places, and things listed under “Blast” or “Bless”. The war created between the artists of the Royal Academy and the Japanese artists, who are seen as originalists as the others are seen as imitators. This proves that art is war. Then there are the war heroes painting the scenery of a well-calculated defeat, or a scenic defiance. These men, who are blessed by Lewis and Pound, show that war is art. Then there is the war of the tea shops that are filled with artists and writers, that are well-known through their mentioning in different works of writing. But the war between them is the title of being the best tea shop, Lewis and Pound showed that through adding them to the manifesto.

 

Wyndham Lewis and the end of Vorticism

By: Jessica Fox

Wyndham Lewis’ attitude during WW1 led to the end of BLAST magazine after he became disillusioned with the values of Vorticism. The militancy of the first issue met its challenge during the war and the horrors of war shocked and forever changed his previous views on the war and even England. BLAST magazine was a short-lived, British, Vorticist magazine. Two editions were published: the first on July 2, 1914, referred to by Ezra Pound as the “great MAGENTA cover’d opusculus”; the second a year later on July 15, 1915 (Materer). Both editions were largely written and produced by Lewis. The first issue was written right before WW1 while the second issue was written in the middle of the war. Lewis’ disenchantment towards vorticism and captivation with fascism led to BLAST’s untimely demise.

The English writer and painter Percy Wyndham Lewis was one of the most imaginative artists of the 20th century. At some point he dropped his first name Percy, as he extremely disliked it. His paintings depicted the energy of the industrial world. Lewis wrote novels, plays, autobiographies and critical articles attacking modern art and society because he felt they lacked the power and energy necessary to the future. Wyndham Lewis was born November 17, 1882, in Nova Scotia, Canada. He died on March 7, 1957, in London, England (Meyers). After moving to London with his mother in 1893, Lewis attended Rugby School. He won a scholarship to London’s Slade School of Fine Art and attended from 1898-1901. Three years later, after failing to complete his courses, he studied in Paris at the Sorbonne (Meyers). He took much of this time to travel and see the world. After returning to London in 1908, Lewis became a leading member on the British art scene; he helped form the Rebel Art Centre, from which emerged the movement known as Vorticism (Klein).

During World War I, Lewis served as official war artist in addition to serving as a battery officer. Much of his time was spent in observation where he would look at German lines, register targets and call down for artillery around the Ypres Salient (Meyers). It was dangerous work and he made vibrant accounts of narrow escapes and deadly weapon fights. After the Third Battle of Ypres in 1917, he was appointed as an official war artist for both the Canadian and British governments, beginning work in December 1917 (Meyers). “For the Canadians he painted A Canadian Gun-Pit (National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa) from sketches made on Vimy Ridge. For the British he painted one of his best known works, A Battery Shelled, drawing on his own experience in charge of a 6-inch howitzer at Ypres.” (Meyers 48). Lewis exhibited his war drawings and some other paintings of the war in an exhibition, “Guns,” in 1918 (Morrow).  In the 1920s, Lewis concentrated on his writings, alienating his supporters with his praise of Adolph Hitler. Lewis’s novels have been criticized for their satirical and hostile portrayals of Jews, homosexuals, and other minorities. The 1918 novel Tarr was revised and republished in 1928 due to his writing about a Jewish character who is given a key role in making sure a duel is fought. This has been interpreted as an allegorical representation of a supposed Zionist conspiracy against the West (Meyers). The Apes of God has been interpreted similarly, because many of the characters satirized are Jewish, including the modernist author and editor Julius Ratner, a portrait which combines an anti-Semitic stereotype with historical literary figures. During World War II, Lewis lived in poverty in America and Canada (Materer).

Although the term ‘vorticism’ was devised by American poet Ezra Pound in 1913; Lewis had, in 1912, already produced what he referred to as Vorticist paintings meant to attack Victorian romanticism and highlighting the importance of energy, violence and the industrial world (Klein). Lewis’ friend Ezra Pound christened the style “Vorticism” Lewis found the strong structure of Cubist painting appealing, but said it did not seem “alive” compared to Futurist art, which, contrariwise, lacked solid structure. Vorticism combined those two unique concepts in a strikingly dramatic criticism of modernity. This new movement focused on an emphasis of sharp angles and bold lines which was intended to reject the art of the previous century. This rejection led to stressing the extreme qualities of violence and energy as well as the importance of mechanical machines in the modern world (Klein). Modernity was all the rage for Lewis and Pound. The Vorticist movement was cut short by World War I.

It was in the years 1913 through 1915 that Lewis developed his signature style of geometric abstraction for which he is best known today (Klein). In Lewis’ early visual artworks, particularly kinds of village life in Brittany showing dancers, it is also thought that Lewis may have been influenced by the development of the philosophy of Henri Bergson, whose lectures he attended in Paris (Klein). Lewis’ friend T.E. Hulme, another modernist artist and philosopher was greatly interested in Bergson and introduced the two. Though he was later savagely critical of Bergson, he admitted in a letter to Theodore Weiss that he “began by embracing his evolutionary system.” Nietzsche was an equally important influence (Materer).

Lewis created portraits, industrial landscapes and war scenes such as A Battery Shelled, and the Surrender of Barcelona (Klein). Lewis’s literary creations include more than 40 novels, short stories, essays, poetry, plays and autobiographies. The Revenge for Love, set in the years before the Spanish Civil War, is considered to be his best novel (Meyers).

Three days after the first article of Blast was published, war was declared against Germany. This first war would destroy many things including the initial meaning of Vorticism. During the war Lewis wrote a lot about his thoughts on the war. He had a nice position that allowed him to oversee the horrors and reflect on them. His view slowly changed from one of nationalism and pride in his country to one of despair and disappointment with the cause he was initially fighting for. The war’s senseless destruction only served to intensify Lewis’ altered view. Lewis criticized the liberalness of Britain as well as the parliamentary government; he encouraged his readers to support more radical, right wing parties that were rising up across Europe (Meyers). Hitler and the Nazi party inspired Lewis and he began to feel fascism made more sense than a republic.

The second issue of BLAST is labeled War Number. The ‘War Number’ issue was a tragic document of artistic and political concern for the happenings during wartime (Morrow). While the magazine had become less radical, with less innovative works of art, Lewis had become more radical (Sherry). The magazine demonstrated a decline in progressive and oppositional opinions from BLASTS first issue. It gave us a glimpse into what the contributors were thinking or feeling.

Lewis’s major literary contribution to Blast 2 was the incomplete war fiction, “The Crowd Master,” an experimental and realist piece that portrayed British deployment on the home front. Like much of the art and literature featured in the War Number, “The Crowd Master” involved wartime life and supported the war cause, but it disagreed in its literary and political approach. It is understood to be a work that explains the conflicted responses of Lewis and other soldiers to the huge crowds that rallied to support the British cause in late July and early August 1914. It also critiqued wartime patriotism: fictionalizing Vorticism’s initial response to the beginning of the war. “The Crowd Master” uses experimental literary techniques to affirm vorticist ideals during the war. Instead of praising war like other writings of the time were doing Lewis’ work sought to analyze the mass patriotism brought on by the war. One of Lewis’ other contributions were his “War Notes”. These notes contained many critiques about the war from both sides. Lewis spoke about the senselessness or war as well as called out many of those who were critiquing the war like George Bernard Shaw.

Many were beginning to change direction and step away from Vorticist ideals. They were disillusioned and unhappy. Several of the contributors who were true believers in Vorticism were killed, fighting in the war. Both Gaudier-Brzeska and T. E. Hulme were killed on the front lines. Lewis fought for both France and Canada during this time (Sherry)

Lewis himself had developed an increasingly right-wing view of politics in the years after the war. Lewis saw what was happening in the 1930s in Germany and became almost obsessed with ideas of Fascism. He was enthusiastic and hopeful of what it could mean for Britain and became associated with the British Fascist Party (Sherry). Such views led Lewis to become isolated from his friends and collaborators. He took Vorticism and attempted to turn it into something even more violent. Lewis wrote to a friend on November 1919 that after the war he had intended to publish another, third edition of BLAST (Sherry). He had organized a group of avant-garde artists called Group X and later published a new magazine. This magazine was called The Tyro but was unpopular and he only ever produced two articles of it as well (Sherry). The third issue of Blast failed to appear and Lewis was never again able to achieve the success of Vorticism before the war.

One year before his death, London’s Tate Gallery honored Lewis with a reflective exhibition (Morrow). There was a growing interest in his work, with recent exhibitions being held at Rugby School, the National Portrait Gallery, London, and The Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University (Morrow). This helped to reinvigorate him and redeem him for his fascist views. Although he was never able to revive vorticism he will always remain a permanent stable of the early modernist movement.

Annotations

p. 92: Frank Brangwyn

An Anglo-welsh artist, painter, and illustrator. Brangwyn was well-known as an Edwardian painter and traditionalist. He was part of the Royal Academy. He became known for painting seascapes during his time in the Royal Navy. He is known for some of the war posters created that he donated, including Put Strength in the Final Blow: Buy War Bonds. This poster was extremely disliked by the Germans and the British.

p. 92: Albert Memorial

The Albert memorial took over 14 years to plan and to reveal it to the public. This monument was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott, in remembrance of Queen Victoria’s husband, Prince Albert. This memorial was decorated with carving and had mosaic work using polished gemstones.

p. 93: Rotatzu (Sotatsu)

Sotatsu is a Japanese painter associated with Koyetsu. They worked together a lot and evolved their own styles. He was an important innovator in technique and design, according to Binyon, he modified the old linear method.

p. 93: Korin

Korin is a Japanese painter that determined the style of the Korin school which he started. Korin took Sotatsu and Koyetsu’s technique and evolved it. According to Binyon, Korin made the technique of both of the men “conscious and concentrated…his temperament is less grave and it has something defiant in it” (218). Korin was a Japanese extremist and is known as the most Japanese of all the artist of Japan. He was also well-known and popular in Europe unlike his mentors, Sotatsu and Koyetsu.

p. 33 Henri Gaudier-Brzeska

Henri Gaudier-Brzeska was a contributor of Blast and a close friend of Ezra Pound. Gaudier was well-known for his involvement with the movement of Vorticism and his sculpture. During the completion of the second edition of Blast Gaudier lost his life in the trenches. He did contribute to the second edition of the magazine with his own article called “Vortex (written from the Trenches)”.

p. 86 Laurence Binyon (Lawrence Binyon)

Laurence Binyon was a poet and art scholar. His interest in Japanese art is very noticeable in his art criticism called Painting in the Far East, which was written in 1908. Binyon worked in the British Museum where he compiled catalogues of Japanese color prints to show at the museum, he later on became in charge of the Oriental department (Credo).

p. 93 A.J. Warneford

Reginald Alexander John Warneford was a Royal Naval Service officer who received the Victoria Cross during World War I. He was involved n attacks on German troops while in his aircraft, he encountered Zeppelin airship that was heading over the UK. That is when he attacked Zeppelin and earned his Victoria Cross.

p. 93 Bombardier Wells

Bombardier Billy Wells was a English heavyweight boxer. He was a British champion fighting during World War I. He was posted in India where he boxed in divisional championships, and was eventually promoted to bombardier. He then begun full-time training with a coach and bought his way out of the army to return home to further his career (Clapson).

p. 9 Elberfeld

Small town in Germany, was considered disadvantaged but many famous German arts moved there. Eventually became part of a larger town.

p. 9 Bernard Shaw

His full name was George Bernard Shaw. During his lifetime, he wrote more than 60 plays and won many other awards, among them the Nobel Prize. Originally from Ireland, in 1876 he moved to London. In 1895, he became a theater critic for the Saturday Review and began writing plays of his own. His play Pygmalion was made into a film twice, and the screenplay he wrote for the first version of it won an Oscar.

p. 10 Neech

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, a German philosopher, cultural poet, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has had a profound influence on Western philosophy. His ideas continue to influence philosophers and artists to this day.

p. 11 Constantinople

It was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire, and the later Ottoman empires. Named after Constantine I in the fourth century.

p. 11 Bosphorus

The Bosphorus or Bosporus as it is sometimes spelled is a natural strait and internationally-significant waterway located in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.

p. 12 “Common Sense”

Not referring to Thomas Paine’s writing but instead referring to Shaw’s article, Common Sense About the War. It was a controversial pamphlet which stated that Great Britain and its allies were equally responsible with the Germans and argued for negotiation and peace. His antiwar speeches made him notorious and the target of much criticism.

p. 13 The port of Rotterdam

The port is the largest port in Europe and located in the Netherlands. The total length of the port area is more than 40 km. Around 30,000 outgoing vessels and 110,000 incoming vessels visit the port of Rotterdam every year.

p. 14 Gravelotte

The Battle of Gravelotte was a battle fought on August 18, 1870. It was the largest battle during the Franco–Prussian War, named after Gravelotte, a village in Lorraine between Metz and the former French/German frontier.

Supplementary Documents

http://travels.toa.st/2012/05/16/tea-tea-shop-confidences/

LyonsTeaRoom01_680web

Lyons’ Tea Shop was a franchised tea shop in London that became popular due to the influence it made on writers. Lyons’ ended up becoming so successful within the industry world as the company began to sell their own tea and food within their shops. This tea shop was mentioned in the manifesto as “Blasted” because it sent bad meat to the soldiers during World War I.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolphe_Max

Adolphe-max

Adolphe Max was a Belgian politician and Mayor of Brussels. He is well-known for his stance against Germany when they tried to invade Belgium. Max was seen as a threat as he refused to cooperate with the Germans and was arrested. He was seen as “Blessed” in the manifesto in the second edition of Blast for being a hero.

http://www.counter-currents.com/2014/08/elitism-british-modernism-and-wyndham-lewis/

Wyndham_Lewis_photo_by_George_Charles_Beresford_WWI

This short video, taken from BBC’s “British Masters” series, is about Wyndham Lewis and his impact on London society. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZs6tmievRw

http://www.babelio.com/auteur/Ezra-Pound/4176/photos

 

young ezra pound

Ezra Pound is a contributor to Blast and a great influence in Vorticism as one of its creators. Ezra Pound is well-known for his writing and influences on writers such as T.S. Eliot and James Joyce. Ezra Pound contribution to the second edition of Blast is his section called “Poems” and the other “Chronicles. Pound also contributed to the manifesto “Blast and Bless”.

Wyndham Lewis, Before Antwerp. Blast 2 cover (July 1915). Inscribed “Wyndham Lewis.”

Wyndham Lewis War Number

Wyndham Lewis’s piece of art work graces the cover of the second edition of Blast. This work of art, with its sharp and distinctive edges, shows the outline of soldiers standing tall with their guns. Given the title of this magazine, this piece truly represents the war happening at the time and what to expect while reading the second edition of Blast.

 

Works Cited

Agard, Walter. “Ivan Mestrovic”. The North American Review 218.816 (1923): 678–685. Web.

Barnes, Rosanna L. “Birth Control in Popular Twentieth-century Periodicals”. The Family Coordinator 19.2 (1970): 159–164. Web.

Binyon, Laurence. Painting in the Far East: An Introduction to the History of Pictorial Art in Asia, Especially China and Japan. New York: Dover Publications, 1959. Print.

“Binyon, (Robert) Laurence (1869–1943).” The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia with Atlas and Weather Guide. Abington: Helicon, 2015. Credo Reference. Web. 5 May 2016.

Clapson, Mark. “Bombardier Billy Wells: The Life And Times Of A Boxing Hero.” Labour History Review (Maney Publishing) 59.2 (1994): 75-76. Academic Search Premier. Web. 22 Mar. 2016.

Jeansonne, Glen S. “Hoover Goes to Belgium.” History Today 65.1 (2015): 19-24. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 Apr. 2016.

Klein, Scott. “The Experiment of Vorticist Drama: Wyndham Lewis and “Enemy of the Stars”” Twentieth Century Literature 37.2 (1991): 225-39. JSTOR. Web. 19 Apr. 2016.

Materer, Timothy. “The English Vortex: Modern Literature and the “Pattern of Hope”” Journal     of Modern Literature 3.5, From Modernism to Post-Modernism (1974): 1123-139.           JSTOR. Web. 19 Apr. 2016.

McCracken, Scott. Masculinities, Modernist Fiction and the Urban Public Sphere. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2007. Print.

Meyers, Jeffrey. The Enemy: A Biography of Wyndham Lewis. Boston: Routledge & Kegan    Paul, 1982. Print.

Morrow, Bradford, Bernard Lafourcade, and Wyndham Lewis. A Bibliography of the Writings of Wyndham Lewis. Santa Barbara, CA: Black Sparrow, 1978. Print.

“Paintings and Drawings of War by Sir William Orpen, A. R. A.”. “Paintings and Drawings of War by Sir William Orpen, A. R. A.”. The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 33.184 (1918): 35–33. Web.

Pound, Ezra. Gaudier-Brzeska, a Memoir. New York: New Directions Pub., 1970. Print.

Pound, Ezra. “The New Sculpture.” The Egoist [London] 16 Feb. 1914: 67-68. The Egoist. Noah Donnenberg. Web.

Sherry, Vincent B. Ezra Pound, Wyndham Lewis, and Radical Modernism. New York: Oxford         UP, 1993. Print.

Wees, William C. Vorticism and the English Avant-garde. Toronto: U of Toronto, 1972. Print.

 

 

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